Mission and Vision

MISSION
The mission of the Prevention and Health Promotion Administration (PHPA) is to
protect, promote, and improve the health and well being of all Marylanders and
their families through provision of public health leadership and through community
based public health efforts in partnership with local health departments, providers,
community based organizations, and public and private sector agencies, giving
special attention to at risk and vulnerable populations.

VISION
PHPA envisions a future in which all Marylanders and their families enjoy optimal
health and well being.

The Beginning: 1970’s
The virus has entered the U.S. and is being transmitted among the first cases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1981

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    (CDC) publishes first report of a rare pneumonia (PCP) in five gay men in Los Angeles.
  • The first Kaposi’s Sarcoma cases reported in
    New York and Los Angeles.
  • New term Gay Related Immune Deficiency
    (GRID) 200 cumulative cases reported

 

 

1982

  • Cases identified among gay men, injecting                                      
    drug users, hemophiliacs and infants.
  • GRID becomes Acquired Immune
    Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
  • First transfusion related case identified.
  • Worry over contaminated blood supply.
  • First AIDS cases, known as “slims,”
    reported in Rakai, Uganda.

 

 

1983

  • Two heterosexual females exposed                                             
    through sexual contact with infected
    males.
  • French and U.S. scientists conclude the
    likely cause of AIDS is a retrovirus.
  • CDC establishes AIDS case definition.
  • Blood industry refuses to screen
    donations.

 

 

1984

  • Dr. Robert Gallo                                        
    announces that his
    laboratory has
    isolated the AIDS
    virus HTLV III.

 

 

1985

  • International debate over discovery of AIDS virus.                    
  • Blood donations tested with ELISA and Western
    Blot assays begins.
  • Military forces begin testing applicants.
  • Public Health Services establishes test sites.
  • Documented 20,000 cumulative cases in U.S.
  • Noted actor, Rock Hudson, dies.
  • 1 st International Conference on AIDS held in
    Atlanta, Ga.

 

1986

  • International Commission on                                              
    the Nomenclature of Viruses
    names the AIDS virus as
    Human Immunodeficiency
    Virus (HIV).
  • U.S. Surgeon General, Edward
    Koop, issues a report on AIDS
    that calls for sex education
    and prevention measures.

 

1987

  • Liberace and Michael Bennet die of AIDS.                              
  • AIDS Memorial Quilt displayed on the National Mall in
    Washington, D.C.
  • AZT approved as first AIDS drug.
  • Randy Shilts publishes And the Band Played On.
  • President Reagan speaks about AIDS for the first time.
  • ACT UP is founded in New York.
  • Revisions to AIDS case definition.
  • Required HIV testing of immigrants to the U.S.

 

1988

  • First Presidential AIDS                             
    Commission hearing.
  • ACT UP pressures Food and
    Drug Administration (FDA) to
    speed up drug approval
    process.
  • First World AIDS Day
    Commemoration
    December 1, 1988.

 

 

1989

  • CDC registers 100,000                  
    cumulative AIDS cases in
    the U.S.
  • Aerosolized pentamidine
    approved to treat
    pneumocystis carinii
    pneumonia (PCP).

 

1990

  • Keith Haring dies.    
  • Ryan White dies.
  • The Ryan White CARE Act
    is enacted by Congress
    (August 18, 1990), an act
    of the United States
    Congress and the largest
    federally funded program
    in the United States for
    people living with
    HIV/AIDS.* CARE : Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency.

1991

  • Basketball star, Earvin     
    “Magic” Johnson,
    announces he is HIV
    positive.
  • The World Health
    Organization (WHO)
    reports 10 million new
    infections worldwide.

 

1992

  • Professional tennis legend, Arthur  
    Ashe, confirms that he has AIDS.
  • 250,000 cumulative AIDS cases
    reported in the U.S.
  • First reports of combination anti
    viral therapy.
  • American actor, Anthony Perkins,
    known for his role as Norman
    Bates in the Psycho movies, dies
    from AIDS.

 

1993

  • CDC case definition revised to
    include female specific
    manifestations.
  • The female condom is approved.
  • 9 th International conference
    reports a vaccine or cure may
    never be found.
  • Dancer, Rudolf Nuryev , dies of AIDS.
  • Office of National AIDS Policy
    (ONAP) established by President
    Bill Clinton.

 

1994

  • AZT given to pregnant women to prevent     
    vertical transmission.
  • Pedro Zamora and Elizabeth Glaser die of
    AIDS.
  • Scientists, Ho and Shaw, report that HIV
    is not dormant after initial infection.
  • Experimental viral load testing begins.
  • HIV surveillance begins.
  • First Needle Exchange Program (NEP) in
    Maryland.

 

 

1995

  • Olympic medal winner, Greg Louganis,  
    announces that he has HIV.
  • First protease inhibitor approved.
  • CDC announces that AIDS has become the
    leading cause of death among 25 44 year
    olds in the U.S.
  • 500,000 cumulative AIDS cases reported
    in the U.S.
  • Rap star Eazy E dies of AIDS.
  • First reports of declines in HIV prevalence
    in Uganda published in the BMJ.

 

1996

  • Combination therapy becomes the    
    recommended standard of care in the
    U.S.
  • 573,800 cumulative AIDS cases
    reported in the U.S., of whom 357,598
    had died.
  • The United Nations estimates that
    22.6 million people worldwide are
    infected and 6.4 million have died.

 

1997

  • By September, cumulative U.S. AIDS 
    cases have reached over 626,000.
  • Rapid assay tests using oral specimens
    in use.
  • First time CDC reports the occurrence
    of AIDS defining opportunistic illnesses
    has declined which is attributed to
    increased use of combination
    antiretroviral therapy.

 

1998

  • Approvals of Needle Exchange Programs
    (NEPs) expands despite lack of federal
    funding.
  • 48,269 persons were reported with AIDS this
    year, pushing the cumulative total over
    688,000.
  • 57 percent of all new AIDS cases were
    reported in five states: New York, New
    Jersey, California, Florida, and Texas.
  • 29 states and the Virgin Islands use
    confidential named based HIV reporting for
    adolescents and adults.

1999

  • Worldwide, women                
    accounted for 52 percent of
    the 2.1 million adult deaths
    related to AIDS.
  • Alaska, New York, and Texas
    began HIV case surveillance.
  • Maryland’s AIDS caseload
    hits 20,000.

 

2000

  • South African officials begin lobbying
    drug companies to implement price
    cuts.
  • Therapeutic vaccine, Remune , being
    tested in the U.S., Europe, and Thailand.
  • First U.S. company to begin testing for
    HIV using urine samples. Sentinel
    testing service offers urine based
    testing for HIV 1 antibody, chlamydia
    DNA, and gonorrhea DNA.

2001

  • United Nations General Assembly        
    convenes first ever special session on AIDS.
  • 1st Annual National Black HIV/AIDS
    Awareness Day in the U.S.
  • June 5 marked 20 years since first AIDS
    case was reported.
  • “DOHA Agreement” reached at World
    Trade Organization, meeting in Doha,
    Qatar, allowing developing countries to
    buy or manufacture generic medications
    for HIV/AIDS.

2002

  • The Global Fund to Fight AIDS,     
    Tuberculosis, and Malaria begins
    operations.
  • UNAIDS reports that women
    comprise about half of all adults
    living with HIV/AIDS worldwide.
  • Approval of OraQuick Rapid HIV 1
    Antibody Test, by U.S. FDA; first
    rapid test to use finger prick.
  • HIV is leading cause of death
    worldwide, among those ages 15 59.

2003

  • President George W. Bush announces the  
    President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief,
    (PEPFAR) a $15 billion initiative to address
    HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria in 12
    countries.
  • 1 st Annual Latino AIDS Awareness Day in the
    U.S.
  • The William J. Clinton Presidential Foundation
    secures price reductions for HIV/AIDS drugs
    from generic manufacturers to benefit
    developing nations.

2004

  • 15th International AIDS Conference “Access   
    for All” in Bangkok, Thailand. First to be held
    in Southeast Asia.
  • UNAIDS launches The Global Coalition on
    Women and AIDS to raise the visibility of the
    epidemic’s impact on women and girls
    around the world.
  • OraQuick Rapid HIV 1 Antibody Test
    approved for use with oral fluid by U.S. FDA.

 

2005

  • United Kingdom hosts G8 Summit at Gleneagles
    focus on development in Africa.
  • The U.S. FDA grants “tentative approval of
    generic AIDS drug regimen for potential
    purchase under the PEPFAR”.
  • First ever approval of an HIV drug regimen
    manufactured by a non U.S. based
    pharmaceutical company.
  • The first annual National Asian and Pacific
    Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness Day.

 

2006

  • 1 st Annual National Women and Girls 
    HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S.
  • June 5 marked a quarter of a century since
    the first AIDS case was reported.
  • CDC recommends routine HIV screening for
    all adults, aged 13 64, and yearly screening
    for those at high risk.
  • U.S. Congress reauthorizes the Ryan White
    CARE Act for the third time.

 

2007

  • WHO and UNAIDS recommend that “male   
    circumcision should always be considered as
    part of a comprehensive HIV prevention
    package”.
  • President Bush calls on Congress to
    reauthorize PEPFAR at $30 billion over five
    years.
  • International HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting
    held in Kigali, Rwanda, hosted by the
    Government of Rwanda.

 

2008

  • 17 th International AIDS Conference         
    “Universal Action Now” in Mexico City.
    First to be held in Latin America.
  • As of April 2008, all 50 states, the District
    of Columbia, and five dependent areas:
    American Samoa, Guam, the Northern
    Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S.
    Virgin Islands use the same confidential
    name based reporting system to collect
    HIV and AIDS data.

 

2009

  • President Barack Obama signed legislation
    to extend the Ryan White CARE Act.
  • President Barack Obama eliminated the
    1987 ban that prevented non U.S. citizens
    from traveling or immigrating to the U.S. if
    they were HIV positive.
  • President Barack Obama launches the
    Global Health Initiative: A six year, $63
    billion initiative with PEPFAR at its core to
    address global health issues.

 

2010

  • Removal of U.S. HIV travel and     
    immigration ban officially begins.
  • The XVIII International AIDS
    Conference held in Vienna, Austria,
    with the theme “Rights Here, Right
    Now,” emphasizing human rights as a
    central part of the HIV response.
  • The White House released the first
    comprehensive National HIV/AIDS
    Strategy for the U.S. in June 2010.

 

2011

  • 30 Year Anniversary of HIV in the U.S., and Marylanders         
    attempted to break the Guinness World Record by forming the
    largest human red ribbon at Coppin State University.
  • The iPrex study showed that men who have sex with men (MSM)
    and transgender women taking pre exposure antiretroviral
    medication reduced HIV acquisition.
  • The 052 study with discordant heterosexual couples showed that
    antiretroviral medication reduced transmission of HIV and study
    of vaginal microbicides showed reduced HIV acquisition.
  • CDC shifted funding and focus to “High Impact Prevention”.

 

2012

  • June 2012, U.S. Supreme Court ruled to uphold 
    the constitutionality of the Patient Protection
    and Affordable Care Act (ACA)
  • July 2012, The 19 th International AIDS
    Conference opened in Washington D.C., with
    the theme “Turning the Tide Together”
  • U.S. FDA, Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee
    (AVDAC) approved the label change for
    Truvada to be used as a pre exposure HIV
    prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV uninfected MSM
    and transgender women; partners in
    serodiscordant couples.

2013

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)  
    scientists discovered how HIV kills
    immune cells.
  • The FDA approved the first rapid
    test that can detect both HIV 1 and
    HIV 2.
  • World AIDS Day Dec. 1, 2013 25th
    Anniversary! World AIDS Day was
    initiated in 1988, seven years after
    the first cases of AIDS were
    reported.

 

2014

  • May 2014 U.S. Public Health Service released the first comprehensive
    clinical practice for PrEP.
  • Delegates to the 20 th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne,
    Australia, including former IAS President Joep Lange, were on Malaysian
    Airlines Flight MH 17 that crashed over Ukraine.

 

2015

  • CDC warns opioid abuse could lead to        
    more severe outbreaks of HIV and
    Hepatitis C.
  • Austin, Ind. recorded 142 new HIV cases
    in April 2015 since December 2014.
  • July 2015, National HIV/AIDS Strategy
    for the U.S. updated to 2020.

 

 

 

2016

  • March 2016 Johns Hopkins surgeons     
    are the first in the U.S. to perform a
    liver and a kidney transplant between
    HIV donors and recipients.
  • Maryland Governor Larry Hogan signed
    the Opioid Associated Disease
    Prevention and Outreach Act. Referred
    to as the Syringe Services Programs Bill,
    will allow thousands of Maryland
    residents to access life saving sterile
    syringe exchange programs.

 

2017

  • The international Undetectable Equals  
    Untransmittable (U=U) Campaign U=U
    became the most important prevention
    message of 2017.
  • CDC officially admits people with HIV
    who are undetectable can’t transmit HIV
  • Multiple PrEP clinics established
    throughout Maryland.
  • The first National Faith HIV Awareness
    Day was observed on August 27.

 

2018

  • June 5 recognized as the 1st national     
    awareness day for long term survivors of
    HIV and AIDS.
  • Currently 26 percent of all 1.4 million
    people living with HIV in the U.S.
    became positive before 1996.
  • “It Is Still Not Over.” HIV Long Term
    Survivors Day #HLTSAD2018.
  • 2018 is the 30 th Anniversary for the
    commemoration of World AIDS Day.

 

2019

  • In the State of the Union Address on
    February 5, 2019, President Donald J.
    Trump announced his Administration’s
    goal to end the HIV epidemic in the
    United States within 10 years.
  • To achieve this goal and address the
    ongoing public health crisis of HIV, the
    proposed Ending the HIV Epidemic: A
    Plan for America will reduce new HIV
    infections in the United States by 75%
    in five years and by 90% by 2030.

 

2020

  • The global COVID 19 Pandemic brings c oncern for HIV   
    positive patients, and forces local, national and
    international conferences to be held virtually.
  • Telemedicine becomes a standard of care and helps
    consolidate primary care in HIV/AIDS management. This
    may ultimately lead to fewer gaps in care, decreased
    specialist costs, and increased access to services for
    patients living with HIV/AIDS.
  • AIDS2020 Conference highlights include data showing
    long acting injectable cabotegravir is even more
    effective in preventing HIV than daily oral Truvada.

 

Reference:

Maryland Department of Health Prevention and Health Promotion Administration
http://phpa.dhmh.maryland.gov

 

 

 

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